The Lab

Welcome to our laboratory! Our team together offers over 100 years of laboratory experience. We are proud to offer high-quality lab testing at an affordable rate. Most of our testing is competitive with reference lab pricing but at the convenience of our Hugo location! Our staff is friendly, caring, and well-trained laboratory professionals. The lab provides services 24/7 for all emergency needs. Outpatient services are available Monday – Friday 9 am to 5:00 pm or by appointment.
Lincoln Health  Laboratory is happy to offer Direct Access Testing for you to be able to pay a discounted rate for routine blood testing. The Lab will not be reporting any of these results to your provider, but our “in house” providers will be able to see these results in your medical chart. It is your responsibility as the patient to follow up with your provider for interpretation and treatment relating to your results. Please provide a current address for us to send your results to you.

Download the Direct Access Testing Form Here! 

Direct Access Labs

Complete Blood Count (auto differential only) $20.00

Complete Blood Count with Differential

Does this test have other names?

CBC w/ diff

What is this test?

This panel of tests looks for many illnesses in your blood. These include anemia, infections, and leukemia. It can help see how your overall health is.

The test gets a lot of information from your blood sample:

  • The number and types of white blood cells (WBCs). Your body has 5 types of white blood cells. All play a role in fighting infections. High numbers of WBCs, or of a specific type of WBC, may mean you have an infection or inflammation somewhere in your body. Low numbers of WBCs may mean you are at risk for infections.

  • The number of red blood cells (RBCs). RBCs carry oxygen throughout the body and remove excess carbon dioxide. Too few RBCs may be a sign of anemia or other diseases. In rare cases, too many may cause problems with blood flow.

  • How the size of your red blood cells varies. This test is known as red cell distribution width (RDW, RDW-CV, or RDW-SD). For instance, you may have greater differences in red blood cell size if you have anemia.

  • Hematocrit (HCT). This means the portion of red blood cells in a certain amount of whole blood. A low hematocrit may be a sign of too much bleeding. Or it might mean that you have an iron deficiency or other disorders. A higher than normal hematocrit can be caused by dehydration or other disorders.

  • Hemoglobin (Hgb, Hb). Hemoglobin is a protein in red blood cells. It carries oxygen from your lungs to the rest of the body. Abnormalities can be a sign of problems ranging from anemia to lung disease.

  • The average size of your red blood cells. This test is known as mean corpuscular volume (MCV). MCV goes up when your red blood cells are bigger than normal. This happens if you have anemia caused by low vitamin B-12 or folate levels. If your red blood cells are smaller, this can mean other types of anemia, such as iron deficiency anemia.

  • A platelet (PLT) count. Platelets are cell fragments that play a role in blood clotting. Too few platelets may mean you have a higher risk of bleeding. Too many may mean a number of possible conditions.

  • Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH). This test measures how much hemoglobin your red blood cells have.

Why do I need this test?

You may need this test if your healthcare provider thinks you have a blood disorder. You may need this test if you have:

  • Unusual bleeding or bruising

  • Infection or inflammation

  • Weakness and tiredness that doesn’t go away. These may be symptoms of anemia.

You may also have this test if your healthcare provider thinks you may have a certain disease or condition. Or you may have this test as part of a routine exam to check your health. The test may also be used to see how well certain treatments are working.

What other tests might I have along with this test?

Your healthcare provider may also order other tests if your results for this test are abnormal. These may include other blood tests, urine tests, and bone marrow or spinal fluid tests.

What do my test results mean?

Test results may vary depending on your age, gender, health history, and other things. Your test results may be different depending on the lab used. They may not mean you have a problem. Ask your healthcare provider what your test results mean for you.

Normal ranges for the different parts of a CBC are:

  • Red blood cells (RBC): 3.8 to 5.69 million per cubic millimeter (million/mm3)

  • Red blood cell distribution width (RDW, RDW-CV, RDW-SD): 11.4% to 13.5%

  • White blood cells (WBC): 3.8 to 10.4 thousand per cubic millimeter (thousand/mm3)

  • Platelets (PLT): 152 to 361 thousand/mm3

  • Hemoglobin (Hb or Hgb): 11.9 to 14.8 grams per deciliter (g/dL) in women, 13.6 to 16.9 in men

  • Hematocrit (HCT): 35% to 43% in women, 40% to 50% in men

How is this test done?

The test is done with a blood sample. A needle is used to draw blood from a vein in your arm or hand. 

Does this test pose any risks?

Having a blood test with a needle carries some risks. These include bleeding, infection, bruising, and feeling lightheaded. When the needle pricks your arm or hand, you may feel a slight sting or pain. Afterward, the site may be sore. 

What might affect my test results?

Certain medicines might affect your results, so talk with your healthcare provider about the medicines you are taking.

How do I get ready for this test?

You don't need to prepare for this test. Be sure your healthcare provider knows about all medicines, herbs, vitamins, and supplements you are taking. This includes medicines that don't need a prescription and any illicit drugs you may use.

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Complete Metabolic Panel $35.00

What is a comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP)?

A comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) is a blood sample test that measures 14 different substances in your blood. It provides important information about your body's chemical balance and metabolism (how your body transforms the food you eat into energy).

Healthcare providers often use a CMP as a routine blood test and to help diagnose, screen for or monitor certain health conditions.

What tests are in a comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP)?

A CMP measures the following substances in your blood:

  • Glucose: This is a type of sugar that provides energy for your body and brain. Glucose is also known as blood sugar. Elevated fasting blood glucose is often a sign of Type 2 diabetes. Very high glucose levels, whether fasting or not, usually indicate Type 1 diabetes.
  • Calcium: Calcium is one of the most important and common minerals in your body. While most of your calcium is stored in your bones, you need calcium in your blood as well. Blood calcium is essential for proper functioning of your nerves, muscles and heart.
  • Total protein: This is a measurement of the total amount of albumin and globulins, which are proteins in your blood.
  • Bilirubin: This is a waste product that’s made from the breakdown of red blood cells. Your liver is in charge of removing bilirubin from your body.
  • BUN (blood urea nitrogen): This is a measurement of urea nitrogen, which is a waste product that your kidneys help remove from your blood.
  • Creatinine: This is a byproduct of muscle activity. It’s a waste product that your kidneys filter and remove from your blood.
  • Albumin: This is a protein that your liver makes. It transports important substances through your bloodstream and keeps fluid from leaking out of your blood vessels.

A CMP also measures the following four electrolytes. Electrolytes are minerals that carry an electric charge when they are dissolved in a liquid. These electrolytes in your blood control nerve and muscle function and maintain the acid-base balance (pH balance) of your blood and your water balance.

  • Sodium: Most of your sodium comes from the food you eat, and your kidneys help regulate your body’s sodium levels.
  • Potassium: Potassium comes from the food you eat and is present in all tissues of your body.
  • Bicarbonate: Bicarbonate indicates the amount of carbon dioxide (CO₂) in your blood.
  • Chloride: Chloride functions along with sodium, potassium and bicarbonate to control many processes in your body.

A CMP also measures the following three liver enzymes. Enzymes are substances that act as a catalyst and allow certain bodily processes to happen.

What is a comprehensive metabolic panel used for?

Healthcare providers often use a comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) to get a broad assessment of your overall physical health. With 14 individual measurements, it can check several body functions and processes, including:

  • Your liver and kidney health.
  • Your blood sugar levels.
  • The acid and base balance in your blood.
  • Your fluid and electrolyte balance.

Depending on the situation, your provider can have you undergo a CMP for the following reasons:

  • Diagnosis: A CMP can help your provider diagnose certain medical conditions.
  • Screening: Screening means attempting to find health issues before you have symptoms. Routine screening helps find certain conditions in their early stages. Since it contains 14 different measurements, providers often use a CMP as a part of routine health checkups.
  • Monitoring: If you have a certain medical condition, a CMP can help your provider determine if your treatment is working. CMPs can also help check for side effects of certain medications, especially those that can affect your liver or kidneys.

Why do I need a comprehensive metabolic panel?

A comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) can provide helpful information in many different situations, including:

  • If you’re experiencing symptoms related to kidney, liver and/or metabolism issues.
  • If you’re experiencing a general symptom, such as fatigue. Since a CMP measures several important aspects of your blood, it can help determine or rule out certain causes of a common symptom.
  • If you had a prior test result that was abnormal, your provider may want to test again to see if your levels have changed or remain abnormal.
  • If you’re taking a treatment for a medical condition, your provider may test to see if the treatment is working.
  • If you’re starting a new medication that can affect your kidney or liver function.

What’s the difference between a comprehensive metabolic panel and a basic metabolic panel?

basic metabolic panel (BMP) includes eight of the 14 tests in a comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP). A BMP doesn’t include the liver enzyme and protein tests. Your healthcare provider may have you undergo a CMP or a BMP depending on your health history and needs. Both panels are considered routine blood tests.

TEST DETAILS

Who performs a comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP)?

A healthcare provider called a phlebotomist usually performs blood draws, including those for a comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP), but any healthcare provider trained in drawing blood can perform this task. A provider then sends the sample to the lab where a medical laboratory scientist prepares the samples and performs the tests on machines known as analyzers.

Do I need to fast for a comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP)?

In order to prepare, you’ll likely need to avoid eating or drinking (fast) for 10 to 12 hours before your comprehensive metabolic panel blood test so that the glucose reflects a fasting sample, instead of sugars from food you’ve eaten. Your healthcare provider will give you specific instructions when they order the test for you.

What should I expect during my comprehensive metabolic panel blood test?

You can expect to experience the following during a blood test, or blood draw:

  • You’ll sit in a chair, and a healthcare provider will check your arms for an easily accessible vein. This is usually in the inner part of your arm on the other side of your elbow.
  • Once they’ve located a vein, they’ll clean and disinfect the area.
  • They’ll then insert a small needle into your vein to take a blood sample. This may feel like a small pinch.
  • After they insert the needle, a small amount of blood will collect in a test tube.
  • Once they have enough blood to test, they’ll remove the needle and hold a cotton ball or gauze on the site to stop any bleeding.
  • They’ll place a bandage over the site, and you’ll be finished.

The entire procedure usually takes less than five minutes.

What should I expect after my comprehensive metabolic panel blood test?

After a healthcare provider has collected your blood sample, they’ll send it to a laboratory for testing. Once the test results are back, your healthcare provider will share them with you.

What are the risks of a comprehensive metabolic panel blood test?

Blood tests are a very common and essential part of medical testing and screening. There’s very little risk to having blood tests. You may have slight tenderness or a bruise at the site of the blood draw, but this usually resolves quickly.

RESULTS AND FOLLOW-UP

What do the results of a comprehensive metabolic panel mean?

Blood test reports, including comprehensive metabolic panel test reports, usually provide the following information:

  • The name of the blood test or what was measured in your blood.
  • The number or measurement of your blood test result.
  • The normal measurement range for that test.
  • Information that indicates if your result is normal or abnormal, or high or low.

If any single CMP result or a combination of results are not normal, it may indicate — but not guarantee — many different health conditions, including:

If you have an abnormal result, your healthcare provider will likely have you undergo additional tests to confirm or rule out a specific diagnosis. If you have questions about your results, don’t be afraid to talk to your provider.

Should I be concerned if I have abnormal comprehensive metabolic panel test results?

If one of your CMP results is abnormal, it doesn't necessarily mean that you have a medical condition. Other factors, such as diet, certain medications and health conditions can affect your test results. There could’ve also been an error in the collection, transport or processing of the test.

Your healthcare provider will take into consideration your medical history and current medications as well as your results and let you know if you need to undergo further testing.

When should I know the results of the test?

In most cases, you should have your comprehensive metabolic panel test results within one or two days, though it could take longer.

*A comprehensive metabolic panel is a helpful and common blood test that broadly assesses your physical health. Know that having an abnormal level in one of your CMP results doesn’t necessarily mean you have a medical condition. Approximately 1 in 20 healthy people will have an abnormal test result. Many other factors can affect your results. Your healthcare provider will let you know if you need to undergo further tests to determine the cause of the abnormal level. Don’t be afraid to ask your provider questions. They’re there to help you.

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Lipid Profile $20.00

What is a lipid panel?

A lipid panel is a blood test that measures the amount of certain fat molecules called lipids in your blood. In most cases, the panel includes four different cholesterol measurements and a measurement of your triglycerides.

Having too many lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides) in your blood can lead to buildup in your blood vessels and arteries, which can cause damage and increase your risk of cardiovascular problems. Because of this, healthcare providers use lipid panels for both children and adults to evaluate the risk of cardiovascular diseases like heart diseaseheart attack (myocardial infarction) and stroke.

Other common names for a lipid panel include:

  • Lipid profile.
  • Lipid test.
  • Cholesterol panel.
  • Coronary risk panel.
  • Fasting lipid panel or non-fasting lipid panel.

What are the five tests in a lipid panel?

A lipid panel measures five different types of lipids from a blood sample, including:

  • Total cholesterol: This is your overall cholesterol level — the combination of LDL-C, VLDL-C and HDL-C.
  • Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol: This is the type of cholesterol that’s known as “bad cholesterol.” It can collect in your blood vessels and increase your risk of cardiovascular disease.
  • Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol: This is a type of cholesterol that’s usually present in very low amounts when the blood sample is a fasting samples since it’s mostly comes from food you’ve recently eaten. An increase in this type of cholesterol in a fasting sample may be a sign of abnormal lipid metabolism.
  • High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol: This is the type of cholesterol that’s known as “good cholesterol.” It helps decrease the buildup of LDL in your blood vessels.
  • Triglycerides: This is a type of fat from the food we eat. Excess amounts of triglycerides in your blood are associated with cardiovascular disease and pancreatic inflammation.

While these are the main measurements in a standard lipid panel, some versions of the test may include other measurements.

What is a lipid panel used for?

Healthcare providers use lipid panels to help assess someone’s cardiovascular health by analyzing cholesterol in their blood and to help diagnose other health conditions.

Reasons a provider may order a lipid panel include:

  • As a routine test to determine if your cholesterol level is normal or falls into a borderline-, intermediate- or high-risk category.
  • To monitor your cholesterol level if you had abnormal results on a previous test or if you have other risk factors for heart disease.
  • To monitor your body’s response to treatment, such as cholesterol medications or lifestyle changes.
  • To help diagnose other medical conditions, such as liver disease.

Why do I need a lipid panel blood test?

There are several reasons why you may need a lipid panel blood test. Healthcare providers use lipid panels often for screen and monitoring purposes.

If you have one or more risk factors for cardiovascular disease, your provider may suggest frequent screening through the use of a lipid panel to try to catch elevated cholesterol levels before you have symptoms. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease include:

  • Being over age 45 if you’re a man or you were assigned male at birth and over 50 if you’re a women or you were assigned female at birth.
  • Having a high cholesterol result on a previous test.
  • Smoking cigarettes.
  • Having obesity.
  • Not getting enough physical activity.
  • Having high blood pressure (hypertension).
  • Having diabetes or prediabetes.
  • Having a first-degree relative, such as a parent or sibling, who developed heart disease at an early age (under 55 in males and under 65 in females).

Children can also have high cholesterol, so your child may need a lipid panel blood test. Cholesterol levels in children are linked to three factors: heredity, diet and obesity. In most cases, kids with high cholesterol have a parent who also has elevated cholesterol.

While providers mostly use lipid panels for screening or monitoring cholesterol levels, providers sometimes use them as part of the diagnostic process for certain health conditions that can affect your lipid levels, including:

If you’re experiencing symptoms of any of these conditions, your provider may have you undergo a lipid panel blood test.

TEST DETAILS

Who performs a lipid panel blood test?

A healthcare provider called a phlebotomist usually performs blood draws, including those for a lipid panel, but any healthcare provider who is trained in drawing blood can perform this task. A provider then sends the samples to a lab where a medical laboratory scientist prepares the samples and performs the tests on machines known as analyzers.

Do I need to fast for a lipid panel?

In most cases, you need to fast for 10 to12 hours before your lipid panel blood test. Fasting means not eating or drinking anything except water. In some cases, getting a lipid panel test without fasting is possible.

In any case, it’s important to ask your healthcare provider in advance about whether you need to fast before the test. Always follow the instructions that your provider gives you. If your provider has instructed you to fast and you accidentally break the fast (eat), please let your provider know because the test is not as useful without fasting.

What should I expect during my lipid panel blood test?

You can expect to experience the following during a blood test, or blood draw:

  • You’ll sit in a chair, and a healthcare provider will check your arms for an easily accessible vein. This is usually in the inner part of your arm on the other side of your elbow.
  • Once they’ve located a vein, they’ll clean and disinfect the area.
  • They’ll then insert a small needle into your vein to take a blood sample. This may feel like a small pinch.
  • After they insert the needle, a small amount of blood will collect in a test tube.
  • Once they have enough blood to test, they’ll remove the needle and hold a cotton ball or gauze on the site to stop the bleeding.
  • They’ll place a bandage over the site, and you’ll be finished.

The entire procedure usually takes less than five minutes.

What should I expect after my lipid panel blood test?

After a healthcare provider has collected your blood sample, they’ll send it to a laboratory for testing. Once the test results are back, your healthcare provider will share the results with you.

What are the risks of a lipid panel blood test?

Blood tests are a very common and essential part of medical testing and screening. There’s very little risk to having blood tests. You may have slight tenderness or a bruise at the site of the blood draw, but this usually resolves quickly.

When can I expect my lipid panel results?

In most cases, you should have your lipid panel results back within 1 to 2 business days, though it could take longer.

RESULTS AND FOLLOW-UP

What do the results of a lipid panel mean?

Blood test reports, including lipid panel blood test reports, usually provide the following information:

  • The name of the blood test or what was measured in your blood.
  • The number or measurement of your blood test result.
  • The normal measurement range for that test.
  • Information that indicates if your result is normal or abnormal or high or low.

What are normal lipid panel results?

The optimal level (measured in milligrams per deciliter of blood — mg/dL) for each of the four standard tests in a lipid panel are as follows:

  • Total cholesterol: Below 200 mg/dL.
  • High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol: Above 60 mg/dL.
  • Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol: Below 100 mg/dL (For people who have diabetes: Below 70 mg/dL).
  • Triglycerides: Below 150 mg/dL.

If your results are higher or lower than the target range, they may be classified as borderline-, intermediate-, or high-risk for cardiovascular issues. In general, higher-than-normal levels of total cholesterol, LDL and triglycerides and lower-than-normal levels of HDL can increase your risk of cardiovascular disease.

It’s rare to have abnormally low levels of cholesterol. If you do, it’s usually due to a health condition that’s causing malnutrition.

Should I be concerned if I have abnormal lipid panel results?

If your lipid results reveal that you have high levels of total cholesterol, LDL and/or triglycerides and/or low levels of HDL, it doesn’t necessarily mean that you have a medical condition or need treatment.

A healthy cholesterol range for you may depend on many factors. Your healthcare provider will take into consideration the following factors when interpreting your lipid panel results:

  • Your age.
  • Your overall health.
  • Your medical history.
  • Your current medications.
  • Other risk factors you may have for cardiovascular disease.

Many providers use a special risk calculator using these factors to determine if you need further tests or treatment. If you have questions about your results, don’t be afraid to talk to your provider.

What are the next steps if my lipid panel results are abnormal?

Since many factors contribute to cardiovascular disease and every person is unique, there’s no one single way to treat abnormal levels of cholesterol and/or triglycerides.

If you have abnormal lipid panel results, your healthcare provider may recommend one or more of the following actions:

  • Continued lipid monitoring.
  • Lifestyle changes, such as changing your diet or starting an exercise routine.
  • Starting a cholesterol-lowering medication.

When should I call my doctor?

If you develop new risk factors for cardiovascular disease, contact your healthcare provider. They may have you undergo a lipid panel or more frequent lipid panel screening.

*Seeing an abnormal test result can be stressful. Know that having an abnormal lipid panel result doesn’t necessarily mean you need treatment. While cholesterol and triglyceride levels can play a significant role in your overall health, many other factors contribute to your risk for cardiovascular disease. Your healthcare provider will take many factors about your health and history into consideration when determining the next steps. Together you will decide on a plan that works best for you.

Source

Iron Profile $20.00

URMC / Encyclopedia / Iron and Total Iron-Binding Capacity

 
 

Iron and Total Iron-Binding Capacity

Do these tests have other names?

Iron (Fe), serum iron, TIBC

What are these tests?

The serum iron test measures the amount of iron in your blood. The total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) test looks at how well the iron moves through your body.

Iron is an important mineral that your body needs to stay healthy. Your body uses iron to make hemoglobin. This is the protein in your red blood cells that carries oxygen around your body. If you don't have enough iron, you may not have enough hemoglobin. This is called iron deficiency anemia.

Iron in your body is carried, or bound, mainly to a protein made by your liver called transferrin. The TIBC test is based on certain proteins, including transferrin, found in the blood. Your transferrin levels are almost always measured along with iron and TIBC.

Why do I need these tests?

You may need these tests if your healthcare provider thinks your iron level is too low or too high. Not having enough iron in your diet is the most common cause of anemia. It's the most common type of diet deficiency in the U.S. You may need this test to look at your diet, nutrition, liver, or other conditions that cause iron to be low, such as blood loss or pregnancy.

Symptoms of iron deficiency include:

  • Being tired and feeling weak

  • Getting frequent infections

  • Feeling cold all the time

  • Having swelling in the tongue

  • Struggling to keep up at school or work

  • In children, having delayed mental development

Symptoms of too much iron can include:

  • Feeling tired and weak

  • Joint pain

  • Belly pain

What other tests might I have along with this test?

Iron, TIBC, and transferrin blood tests are almost always done together. Your blood may also be checked for:

  • Level of your hemoglobin

  • Your percentage of red blood cells, called hematocrit

  • The number of all the cells in your blood, called a complete blood count

What do my test results mean?

Test results may vary depending on your age, gender, health history, and other things. Your test results may be different depending on the lab used. They may not mean you have a problem. Ask your healthcare provider what your test results mean for you.

Normal results of iron testing may be different for men, women, and children. Iron and TIBC are measured in micrograms per deciliter (mcg/dL). Normal results for iron are:

  • 70 to 175 mcg/dL for men

  • 50 to 170 mcg/dL for women

  • 50 to 120 mcg/dL for children

Normal results for TIBC are 250 to 450 mcg/dL for men and women.

Some common causes for a low amount of iron in your blood include:

  • Iron deficiency anemia

  • Other types of anemia

  • Blood loss over time

  • Long-standing infections or diseases

  • Last 3 months of pregnancy

Some common causes for too much iron in your blood include:

  • Conditions that cause red blood cells to die, called hemolytic anemia

  • Iron or lead poisoning

  • Iron overload, such as from hemochromatosis

  • Many blood transfusions

  • Liver damage

Your healthcare provider will look at your iron level along with the TIBC, transferrin, and possibly other tests to see what the results mean.

How are these tests done?

The test is done with a blood sample. A needle is used to draw blood from a vein in your arm or hand. 

Do these tests pose any risks?

Having a blood test with a needle has some risks. These include bleeding, infection, bruising, and feeling lightheaded. When the needle pricks your arm or hand, you may feel a slight sting or pain. Afterward, the site may be sore. 

What might affect my test results?

Many medicines can affect the results of these blood tests. Some common medicines that may affect your results include:

  • Birth control pills

  • Antibiotics

  • Aspirin

  • Some chemotherapy medicines

  • Estrogen

  • Testosterone

Alcohol can also affect the results. Women who are having their menstrual period may have lower iron.

How do I get ready for these tests?

You may be asked to have these blood tests in the morning after fasting overnight. Iron levels are closest to normal in the morning and get lower as the day goes on. Tell your healthcare provider about all medicines, herbs, vitamins, and supplements you are taking. This includes medicines that don't need a prescription and any illegal drugs you may use.

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TSH $15.00

What is thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)?

Thyroid-stimulating hormone, commonly called TSH and also referred to as thyrotropin, is a hormone that your pituitary gland releases to trigger your thyroid to produce and release its own hormones — thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). These two hormones are essential for maintaining your body’s metabolic rate — the speed at which your body transforms the food you eat into energy and uses it. Thyroxine and triiodothyronine also maintain:

  • Your heart and digestive functions.
  • Muscle control.
  • Brain development.
  • Bone maintenance.

Hormones are chemicals that coordinate different functions in your body by carrying messages through your blood to your organs, muscles and other tissues. These signals tell your body what to do and when to do it.

Your pituitary gland is a small, pea-sized gland located at the base of your brain below your hypothalamus. It makes and releases eight hormones, including TSH. Your pituitary gland consists of two lobes: the posterior (back) lobe and the anterior (front) lobe. The anterior lobe makes TSH.

Your thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland located at the front of your neck under your skin. Your pituitary gland and thyroid are part of your endocrine system.

How are TSH levels controlled?

Multiple hormones and glands in your endocrine system work together to carefully control the level of TSH in your bloodstream through a feedback loop.

To start, your hypothalamus releases thyroid-releasing hormone (TRH) to trigger the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) by your pituitary gland.

Your pituitary gland is connected to your hypothalamus through a stalk of blood vessels and nerves. This is called the pituitary stalk. Your hypothalamus is the part of your brain that controls functions like blood pressureheart rate, body temperature and digestion. Through the stalk, your hypothalamus communicates with your pituitary gland and tells it to release certain hormones. In this case, your hypothalamus releases thyroid releasing hormone (TRH), which stimulates your anterior pituitary lobe to release TSH. Your hypothalamus can also release somatostatin, another hormone, to inhibit (prevent) the release of TSH from your anterior pituitary.

TSH then stimulates cells in your thyroid to release thyroxine or T4 (80%) and triiodothyronine or T3 (20%) into your bloodstream. These two hormones prevent your pituitary gland from producing more TSH if the levels of thyroxine and triiodothyronine are too high, thus completing the cycle. When T4 and T3 levels drop, the cycle starts over again.

Because of this feedback loop, if your thyroid is making too much or too little thyroid hormones, it affects your TSH levels. In addition, if your pituitary gland is producing too much or too little TSH, it impacts the function of your thyroid. It’s more common to have an issue with your thyroid that causes irregular levels of TSH than to have an issue with your pituitary gland that causes irregular TSH levels.

What are normal TSH levels?

Normal levels of TSH vary based on your age. In general, normal ranges of TSH for healthy people who aren’t pregnant include:

  • Infants up to 5 days old: 0.7 – 15.2 micro-international units per milliliter (uIU/mL).
  • Infants 6 to 90 days old: 0.72 – 11.0 uIU/mL.
  • Babies 4 to 12 months old: 0.73 – 8.35 uIU/mL.
  • Children 1 to 6 years old: 0.7 – 5.97 uIU/mL.
  • Children 7 to 11 years old: 0.6 – 4.84 uIU/mL.
  • People 12 to 20 years old: 0.51 – 4.3 uIU/mL.
  • Adults 21 to 99 years old: 0.27 – 4.2 uIU/mL.

Normal value ranges for TSH may vary slightly among different laboratories. Be sure to check your lab report’s reference range on your results. If you have any questions about your results, ask your healthcare provider.

What are normal TSH levels during pregnancy?

It’s especially important for people who are pregnant to have healthy amounts of TSH and thyroid hormones to ensure the healthy development of their babies. TSH levels fluctuate throughout pregnancy. In general, normal TSH levels during pregnancy include:

  • First trimester (9 to 12 weeks): 0.18 – 2.99 (uIU/mL).
  • Second trimester: 0.11 – 3.98 uIU/mL.
  • Third trimester: 0.48 – 4.71 uIU/mL.

Always check your lab’s reference range on your results report. If you have questions about your results, ask your healthcare provider.

How do you test TSH levels?

Healthcare providers test TSH levels using a blood test. They take a sample of blood from a vein in your arm and send the sample to a laboratory for testing. You usually don’t need to do anything special to prepare for a TSH blood test.

A TSH blood test is usually the first test providers order if you’re experiencing symptoms related to thyroid issues.

What happens when TSH levels are too low?

If you have too little TSH, it’s most likely that your thyroid gland is making excess thyroid hormone. This condition is called hyperthyroidism, or overactive thyroid. A variety of conditions lead to hyperthyroidism, including Graves' disease and thyroid nodules. A little over 1% of adults in the United States have hyperthyroidism.

Since thyroid hormone suppresses TSH release, high levels of thyroid hormone can cause lower-than-normal TSH levels. Rarely, issues with your pituitary gland, such as a non-functioning pituitary adenoma, can result in low TSH levels as well as low thyroid hormone levels.

Symptoms of low TSH levels

Low TSH levels are usually a sign of hyperthyroidism. Symptoms of hyperthyroidism include:

If you’re experiencing these symptoms, it’s important to talk to your healthcare provider. Hyperthyroidism is treatable.

What happens when TSH levels are too high?

If you have too much TSH, it may indicate that your thyroid isn’t making enough thyroid hormone. This condition is called hypothyroidism, or underactive thyroid. A number of conditions can cause hypothyroidism, including Hashimoto’s disease. About 5% of adults in the United States have hypothyroidism.

Since thyroid hormone suppresses TSH release, too little thyroid hormone can cause your pituitary to make excess TSH. Rarely, issues with your pituitary gland, such as a TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma, or rare genetic conditions can result in higher-than-normal TSH and thyroid hormone levels.

Symptoms of high TSH levels

High TSH levels are usually a sign of hypothyroidism. Symptoms of hypothyroidism include:

It’s important to talk to your healthcare provider if you’re experiencing these symptoms. Hypothyroidism is treatable.

Should I be concerned if my TSH level test results are abnormal?

If your TSH test results are abnormal, it doesn’t always mean you have a medical condition. Your healthcare provider will consider many factors when interpreting your TSH test results, including:

  • Your age: TSH levels tend to be higher in people over the age of 80. Most older people with slightly higher-than-normal TSH levels don’t have any associated health conditions.
  • Pregnancy: Pregnancy causes changes in thyroid hormones. It’s common for TSH to be slightly lower than normal during the first trimester, then slowly increase.
  • Severe illness: People who are very sick with conditions that aren’t related to the thyroid may have a low TSH level temporarily.
  • Other thyroid tests: The results of other thyroid tests, such as free T4 and thyroid antibodies, may affect how your provider interprets TSH test results.

 

In most cases, irregular thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels mean there’s an issue with your thyroid — it’s either producing too much thyroid hormone or too little. The good news is that your thyroid hormone levels, and TSH levels, can be corrected with treatment and medication. If you have any questions about your TSH test results, talk to your healthcare provider. They’re there to help.

Source

Free T3 $15.00

What is a T3 (triiodothyronine) test?

T3 (triiodothyronine) test helps diagnose thyroid conditions, particularly hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid).

Your thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland located at the front of your neck under your skin. It’s a part of your endocrine system. Triiodothyronine, also known as T3, is one of the two main thyroid hormones. Thyroxine, or T4, is the other hormone.

Healthcare providers test T3 levels using blood tests. Triiodothyronine comes in two forms:

  • Free T3: This form enters your body’s tissues where it's needed.
  • Bound T3: This form attaches to proteins, which prevents it from entering your body’s tissues.

Because of this, there are a few different tests that measure T3 levels. A blood test that measures both free T3 and bound T3 is called a total T3 test. A different blood test measures just free T3 levels. The tests for free T3 are generally less accurate than for total T3.

Healthcare providers often order additional tests to assess thyroid function alongside a T3 test, including a T4 (thyroxine) test and a TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) test.

Other names for a T3 test include:

  • Thyroid function test.
  • Total triiodothyronine.
  • Free triiodothyronine.
  • FT3.

What is a T3 (triiodothyronine) and what does it do?

Triiodothyronine, also known as T3, is one of the two main hormones your thyroid gland releases into your bloodstream. Your thyroid also produces thyroxine, also known as T4 and tetraiodothyronine. T4 and T3 work together and are commonly referred to as “thyroid hormone.”

Most of the T3 (approximately 80%) in your blood is from your body’s conversion of T4 into T3 outside of your thyroid gland. The rest of the T3 in your bloodstream is produced by your thyroid gland.

Hormones are chemicals that coordinate different functions in your body by carrying messages through your blood to your organs, muscles and other tissues. These signals tell your body what to do and when to do it.

T3 is the active form of thyroid hormone, meaning it impacts cells in your body, whereas T4 is the inactive form of thyroid hormone. Your liver and kidneys convert most of the T4 your thyroid releases into T3.

Together, T4 and T3 play vital roles in regulating your body’s:

  • Metabolic rate (the rate at which your body transforms the food you eat into energy).
  • Heart and digestive functions.
  • Muscle control.
  • Brain development.
  • Bone maintenance.

Why do I need a T3 (triiodothyronine) test?

Healthcare providers most often order T3 tests to help diagnose hyperthyroidism, a condition in which your thyroid makes too much thyroid hormone, or to determine the severity of hyperthyroidism.

Your provider may order regularT3 tests to monitor your T3 levels if you’re taking thyroid hormone replacement therapy (medication) for a thyroid condition.

TEST DETAILS

Who performs a T3 (triiodothyronine) test?

A healthcare provider called a phlebotomist usually performs blood draws, including those for a T3 blood test, but any healthcare provider who is trained in drawing blood can perform this task. They then send the samples to a lab where a medical laboratory scientist prepares the samples and performs the tests on machines known as analyzers.

How do I prepare for a T3 (triiodothyronine) test?

You usually don’t need to do anything special for a T3 blood test. Depending on the reason for the test, you may need to stop taking certain medications or supplements. In any case, your healthcare provider will give you specific instructions.

What should I expect during my T3 (triiodothyronine) blood test?

You can expect to experience the following during a blood test, or blood draw:

  • You’ll sit in a chair, and a healthcare provider will check your arms for an easily accessible vein. This is usually in the inner part of your arm on the other side of your elbow.
  • Once they’ve located a vein, they’ll clean and disinfect the area.
  • They’ll then insert a small needle into your vein to take a blood sample. This may feel like a small pinch.
  • After they insert the needle, a small amount of blood will collect in a test tube.
  • Once they have enough blood to test, they’ll remove the needle and hold a cotton ball or gauze on the site to stop the bleeding.
  • They’ll place a bandage over the site, and you’ll be finished.

The entire procedure usually takes less than five minutes.

What should I expect after my T3 (triiodothyronine) test?

After a healthcare provider has collected your blood sample, they’ll send it to a laboratory for testing. Once the test results are back, your provider will share the results with you.

What are the risks of a T3 (triiodothyronine) blood test?

Blood tests are a very common and essential part of medical testing and screening. There’s very little risk to having a T3 blood test. You may have slight tenderness or a bruise at the site of the blood draw, but this usually resolves quickly.

When should I know the results of my T3 (triiodothyronine) test?

In most cases, you should have your T4 test results within one or two business days, though it could take longer.

RESULTS AND FOLLOW-UP

What type of results do you get for a T3 (triiodothyronine) test?

Blood test reports, including T3 test reports, usually provide the following information:

  • The name of the blood test or what was measured in your blood.
  • The number or measurement of your blood test result.
  • The normal measurement range for that test.
  • Information that indicates if your result is normal or abnormal or high or low.

What are normal T3 levels?

Normal value ranges for any lab test, including T3 (triiodothyronine) tests, may vary slightly among different laboratories. Be sure to check your lab report’s reference range on your results. If you have any questions about your results, ask your healthcare provider.

Normal T3 levels

Normal T3 level ranges vary based on age. In general, normal ranges for T3 for healthy people include:

  • Children 1 to 5 years old: 106 – 203 nanograms per deciliter (ng/dL).
  • Children 6 to 10 years old: 104 – 183 ng/dL.
  • Children 11 to 14 years old: 68 – 186 ng/dL.
  • Adolescents 15 to 17 years old: 71 – 175 ng/dL.
  • Adults 18 to 99 years old: 79 – 165 ng/dL.

Normal free T3 levels

Providers don’t usually order free T3 tests because they’re not as reliable, but it is possible to test these levels. In general, normal ranges of free T3 for healthy people include:

  • Infants up to 3 days old: 1.4 – 5.4 picograms per milliliter (pg/mL).
  • Infants 4 to 30 days old: 2.0 – 5.2 pg/mL.
  • Babies 1 month to 1 year old: 1.5 – 6.4 pg/mL.
  • Children 1 to 6 years old: 2.0 – 6.0 pg/mL.
  • Children 7 to 11 years old: 2.7 – 5.2 pg/mL.
  • Children 12 to 17 years old: 2.3 – 5.0 pg/mL.
  • Adults 18 to 99 years old: 2.3 – 4.1 pg/mL.

What happens when T3 levels are high?

Higher-than-normal T3 levels typically indicate hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid). Hyperthyroidism has several causes, including Graves’ disease (an autoimmune condition), thyroid nodules and thyroiditis (inflammation of your thyroid gland).

Hyperthyroidism speeds up your metabolism, which can be dangerous to your health. Some symptoms of hyperthyroidism include:

If you’re experiencing symptoms of hyperthyroidism, it’s important to contact your healthcare provider.

If you’ve already been diagnosed with hyperthyroidism, T3 tests can help determine how severe it is. In general, the more elevated your T3 levels, the more severe the hyperthyroidism is.

What happens when T3 levels are low?

Lower-than-normal T3 levels may indicate you have hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid). However, healthcare providers don’t typically rely on T3 tests to diagnose hypothyroidism because it’s usually the last of the thyroid function tests to come back abnormal.

In addition, some people can have severe hypothyroidism with a high TSH level and a low free T4 level but have a normal T3 level.

Lower-than-normal T3 levels can also be due to medications like steroids and amiodarone (arrhythmia medication) and severe illness. These factors can decrease the amount of T4 (inactive hormone) your body converts into T3 (active hormone), resulting in a lower level of T3.

Should I be concerned if I have a low or high T3 (triiodothyronine) test result?

Total T3 test results are usually accurate. However, certain factors may interfere with the results, including certain medications or supplements and pregnancy. Your healthcare provider will consider these factors when interpreting your results.

*Seeing an abnormal test result can be stressful. Know that thyroid conditions are somewhat common and treatable. Your healthcare provider will let you know if you need to undergo further tests to determine the cause of the abnormal T3 level. Don’t be afraid to ask your provider questions. They’re there to help you.

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Free T4 $15

What is a T4 (thyroxine) test?

A T4 (thyroxine) test helps diagnose thyroid conditions.

Your thyroid is a small, butterfly-shaped gland located at the front of your lower neck, above your clavicle. It’s a part of your endocrine system. Your thyroid gland makes and releases thyroid hormones into your blood, which then travel to your organs to exert their effect.

Thyroxine, also known as T4, is the major type of hormone your thyroid releases. Too much or too little T4 can indicate thyroid disease.

Healthcare providers test T4 levels using blood tests. Thyroxine (T4) comes in two forms:

  • Bound T4: This form attaches to proteins, which prevents it from entering your body’s tissues.
  • Free T4: This form “freely” enters your body’s tissues where it’s needed.

Because of this, there are a few different tests that measure T4 levels. A blood test that measures both free and bound T4 is called a total T4 test. Other blood tests measure just free T4. Healthcare providers most often use a free T4 test to assess thyroid function because it’s more accurate than a total T4 test.

Your healthcare provider will most likely also order a TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) test alongside a T4 test. TSH is a hormone your pituitary gland makes. It stimulates your thyroid to produce T4 and T3 (triiodothyronine) hormones.

A TSH test is the best way to initially assess thyroid function. In fact, T4 tests more accurately reflect thyroid function when combined with a TSH test. Measuring T4 levels might not be necessary in all thyroid conditions.

Other names for a T4 test include:

  • Free thyroxine.
  • Total T4 concentration.
  • Thyroxine screen.
  • Free T4 concentration.
  • Free T4 index (FTI).

What is thyroxine (T4) and what does it do?

Thyroxine, also known as T4 and tetraiodothyronine, is the main hormone your thyroid gland releases into your bloodstream. Your thyroid also releases small amounts of triiodothyronine (T3). T4 and T3 work together and are commonly referred to as “thyroid hormone.”

Hormones are chemicals that coordinate different functions in your body by carrying messages through your blood to your organs, muscles and other tissues. These signals tell your body what to do and when to do it.

The T4 your thyroid releases is inactive, meaning it doesn’t affect your body’s cells. However, your liver and kidneys convert most of this thyroxine into triiodothyronine (T3), which is an active hormone that impacts the cells in your body.

Together, T4 and T3 play vital roles in regulating various bodily functions, such as:

  • Metabolic rate (the rate at which your body transforms the food you eat into energy).
  • Heart and digestive functions.
  • Muscle control.
  • Brain development.
  • Bone maintenance.

Synthetic thyroxine

Healthcare providers prescribe a synthetic form of thyroxine called levothyroxine to treat hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid). They can also prescribe it to treat some kinds of thyroid cancer alongside surgery and other treatments.

Why do I need a T4 (thyroxine) test?

Healthcare providers may use T4 tests to assess how well your thyroid is working. Your provider may order a T4 test (in addition to a TSH test) for any of the following reasons:

  • To follow up on an abnormal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) test result.
  • To diagnose hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid).
  • To monitor T4 levels if you’re taking thyroid hormone replacement therapy (medication).
  • To screen for an underactive thyroid in newborns.
  • To evaluate other conditions, such as goiterthyroid nodules and issues with your pituitary gland or hypothalamus.
  • To evaluate for low thyroid hormone levels from a pituitary cause (central hypothyroidism).

Again, providers more commonly order free T4 tests than total T4 tests. In certain situations, such as pregnancy, a total T4 test might be necessary rather than a free T4 test.

TEST DETAILS

Who performs a T4 (thyroxine) blood test?

phlebotomist usually performs blood draws, including those for a T4 blood test, but any healthcare provider who is trained in drawing blood can perform this task. They then send the samples to a lab where a medical laboratory scientist prepares the samples and performs the tests on machines known as analyzers.

How do I prepare for a T4 (thyroxine) test?

You usually don’t need to do anything special for a T4 test. Depending on the reason for the test, you may need to stop taking certain medications or supplements. In any case, your healthcare provider will give you specific instructions.

Biotin, an over-the-counter supplement, can cause several thyroid tests to appear abnormal when they are in fact normal. It’s recommended to stop biotin-containing supplements 3 to 5 days before any thyroid-related blood draw to avoid this effect.

What should I expect during my T4 (thyroxine) blood test?

You can expect to experience the following during a blood test, or blood draw:

  • You’ll sit in a chair, and a phlebotomist will check your arms for an easily accessible vein. This is usually in the inner part of your arm on the other side of your elbow.
  • Once they’ve located a vein, they’ll clean and disinfect the area.
  • They’ll then insert a small needle into your vein to take a blood sample. This may feel like a small pinch.
  • After they insert the needle, a small amount of blood will collect in a test tube.
  • Once they have enough blood to test, they’ll remove the needle and hold a cotton ball or gauze on the site to stop the bleeding.
  • They’ll place a bandage over the site, and you’ll be finished.

The entire procedure usually takes less than five minutes.

What should I expect after my T4 (thyroxine) test?

After a phlebotomist has collected your blood sample, they’ll send it to a laboratory for testing. Once the test results are back, your provider will share the results with you.

What are the risks of a T4 (thyroxine) blood test?

Blood tests are a very common and essential part of medical testing and screening. There’s very little risk to having a T4 blood test. You may have slight tenderness or a bruise at the site of the blood draw, but this usually resolves quickly.

When should I know the results of my T4 (thyroxine) test?

In most cases, you should have your T4 test results within one or two business days, though it could take longer.

RESULTS AND FOLLOW-UP

What type of results do you get for a T4 (thyroxine) test?

Blood test reports, including T4 test reports, usually provide the following information:

  • The name of the blood test or what was measured in your blood.
  • The number or measurement of your blood test result.
  • The normal measurement range for that test.
  • Information that indicates if your result is normal or abnormal, or high or low.

What are normal free T4 levels?

Normal levels of free T4 vary based on your age. In general, normal ranges of free T4 for healthy people include:

  • Children up to 5 years old: 0.8 – 2.8 nanograms per deciliter (ng/dL).
  • Children 6 to 15 years old: 0.8 – 2.1 ng/dL.
  • Adolescents assigned male at birth 16 to 17 years old: 0.8 – 2.8 ng/dL.
  • Adolescents assigned female at birth 16 to 17 years old: 0.8 – 1.5 ng/dL.
  • Adults over 18 years old: 0.9 – 1.7 ng/dL.

Normal value ranges for free T4 may vary slightly among different laboratories. Be sure to check your lab report’s reference range on your results. If you have any questions about your results, ask your healthcare provider.

What happens when T4 (thyroxine) levels are too high?

If you have higher-than-normal T4 or free T4 levels, it could indicate thyrotoxicosis. This can result from several situations and conditions, including hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid), thyroid inflammation (thyroiditis) and taking excessive amounts of thyroid medication.

Thyrotoxicosis speeds up your metabolism, which can be dangerous to your health. Symptoms of thyrotoxicosis include:

If you’re experiencing symptoms of thyrotoxicosis, it’s important to contact your healthcare provider.

Other conditions that could cause elevated total T4 levels with normal free T4 levels include pregnancy and estrogen-containing birth control pills. This is because estrogen levels are high in those two scenarios. Estrogen increases the proteins bound to T4 and causes the total T4 (which is free T4+ binding proteins) to be high.

What happens when T4 (thyroxine) levels are too low?

If you have lower-than-normal T4 levels, it usually indicates hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid). Hypothyroidism has several causes, including certain autoimmune diseases, poor iodine intake in your diet and the use of certain medications.

Hypothyroidism slows down your metabolism. Symptoms include:

  • Fatigue.
  • Intolerance of cold temperatures.
  • Low heart rate.
  • Weight gain.

If you’re experiencing symptoms of hypothyroidism, it’s important to talk to your healthcare provider.

Should I be concerned if I have a low or high T4 (thyroxine) test result?

Free T4 test results are usually accurate. However, certain factors may interfere with the results, including:

  • Certain medications or supplements.
  • Pregnancy.
  • Severe illness or malnourishment.

Your healthcare provider will consider these factors when interpreting your results.

If your T4 test results are irregular, your provider may order more thyroid tests to help make a diagnosis. These tests may potentially include:

  • T3 (triiodothyronine) test (another thyroid hormone).
  • A TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) test.
  • Tests to diagnose Graves disease, an autoimmune disease that causes hyperthyroidism.
  • Tests to diagnose Hashimoto disease, an autoimmune disease that causes hypothyroidism.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

Since thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) triggers the production of thyroxine (T4) and temporarily elevated levels of T4 prevent the release of TSH, TSH and T4 levels directly affect each other.

When you get blood tests that check your thyroid function and TSH levels, different levels of each hormone can indicate different conditions.

Low TSH and normal T4

Having low TSH levels and normal T4 levels is usually considered subclinical hyperthyroidism. “Subclinical” means the condition doesn’t cause any symptoms or symptoms haven’t yet started. Studies estimate that subclinical hyperthyroidism affects up to 16% of the population.

If your blood test report reveals these results, your healthcare provider will likely continue to monitor your levels to see if they change and result in clinical hyperthyroidism.

Low TSH and high T4

Having low TSH levels and high T4 levels typically indicate hyperthyroidism. This is because excess T4, due to an issue with your thyroid, is preventing your hypothalamus from releasing TSH.

Low TSH and low T4

Having low TSH and low T4 levels may indicate that you have an issue with your pituitary gland, such as a large pituitary adenoma, that’s preventing it from releasing enough TSH to trigger T4 production. This is a less common result combination.

High TSH normal T4

When you have high TSH levels and normal T4 levels, it’s usually considered subclinical hypothyroidism (also called mild thyroid failure). This condition occurs in 3% to 8% of the population.

If your blood test report reveals these results, your healthcare provider will likely continue to monitor your levels to see if they change and result in clinical hypothyroidism.

High TSH and low T4

Having high TSH and low T4 levels usually indicates hypothyroidism, an underactive thyroid due to a primary thyroid problem. This is a lack of T4 production due to an issue with your thyroid that’s causing your pituitary gland to release excess TSH to try to stimulate your thyroid into making more T4.

High TSH and high T4

Having high TSH and high T4 levels may indicate that you have an issue with your pituitary gland that’s causing it to release too much TSH, and thus triggering your thyroid to make excess T4. This is an extremely rare result combination.

 

Seeing an abnormal test result can be stressful. Know that thyroid conditions are fairly common, especially hypothyroidism, and are treatable. Your healthcare provider will let you know if you need to undergo further tests to determine the cause of the abnormal T4 level. Don’t be afraid to ask your provider questions or to schedule an appointment to discuss your results further.

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Vitamin D $20.00

What is a Vitamin D Test?

vitamin D test measures the level of vitamin D in your blood to make sure you have enough for your body to work well. Vitamin D is essential for healthy bones and teeth. It also helps keep your muscles, nerves, and immune system working normally.

Having low levels of vitamin D is a common problem that can lead to bone disorders and other medical problems. Vitamin D testing can let you know if you need to increase your vitamin D levels.

You get vitamin D in three ways:

  • Your body makes vitamin D when your bare skin is exposed to sunlight.
  • You get vitamin D from certain foods. Only a few foods, such as egg yolks and fatty fish, naturally contain vitamin D. That's why vitamin D is added to foods, including breakfast cereals, milk, and other dairy items.
  • You can take vitamin D supplements.

Before your body can use vitamin D, your liver must change it into another form called 25 hydroxyvitamin D, or 25(OH)D. Most vitamin D blood tests measure the level of 25(OH)D in your blood.

Your kidneys use 25(OH)D to make "active vitamin D." Active vitamin D lets your body use calcium to build bone and helps other cells work properly. If you have kidney problems or abnormal calcium levels in your blood, your health care provider may order a test of active vitamin D. But this test is not generally used to check whether you have enough vitamin D.

Testing 25(OH)D is the most accurate way to measure how much vitamin D is in your blood.

Other names: 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25(OH)D, cholecalciferol test, ergocalciferol test, calcidiol test, vitamin D2 test, vitamin D3 test

What is it used for?

A vitamin D test is used to screen for low levels of vitamin D in your blood so you can treat it with supplements before it causes health problems.

If you have a known bone disorder or a problem absorbing calcium, a vitamin D test may be used to see if a lack of vitamin D is causing your condition. Your provider may order a Vitamin D test if you have:

Because vitamin D can affect many parts of your body, you may have your vitamin D level checked if you have other chronic (long-term) medical conditions. Ask your provider if you should be tested.

Why do I need a vitamin D test?

Your provider may order a vitamin D test if you have signs or symptoms of a bone condition that may be related to a vitamin D deficiency (very low levels of vitamin D), such as:

  • Bone pain
  • Muscle weakness or aches
  • Soft bones
  • Deformed bones
  • Weak bones and fractures (broken bones)
  • Low bone density (osteoporosis or osteopenia)

A vitamin D insufficiency (mildly low levels of vitamin D) usually doesn't cause symptoms. So, your provider may order a test if you have a high risk for developing a deficiency because you:

  • Are older than 65. As you age, your skin is less able to make vitamin D from sunlight.
  • Rarely expose your skin to sunshine because you stay indoors, cover up outside, use sunscreen, or live where there is little sunlight
  • Have dark skin, which makes less vitamin D from sunlight
  • Have had weight loss surgery
  • Have obesity
  • Have a condition that makes it difficult to absorb nutrients in food, such as Crohn's diseaseulcerative colitis, and celiac disease
  • Have kidney or liver disease that affects your ability to change vitamin D into a form your body can use
  • Take certain medicines that affect your vitamin D levels

A lack of vitamin D can cause serious problems for babies and children. A provider may order a screening test for:

  • Babies that are mainly fed breastmilk. Breastmilk is low in vitamin D (All babies need vitamin D supplements shortly after birth, unless they are fed only formula, which contains vitamin D.)
  • Children with darker skin who live in areas with little sunlight
  • Children with diets low in vitamin D

If you are taking vitamin D supplements to increase your vitamin D level, your provider may order a test to see if your vitamin D levels are improving.

What happens during a vitamin D test?

A vitamin D test is a blood test. During a blood test, a health care professional will take a blood sample from a vein in your arm, using a small needle. After the needle is inserted, a small amount of blood will be collected into a test tube or vial. You may feel a little sting when the needle goes in or out. This usually takes less than five minutes.

Will I need to do anything to prepare for the test?

You don't need any special preparations for a vitamin D test.

Are there any risks to the test?

There is very little risk to having a blood test. You may have slight pain or bruising at the spot where the needle was put in, but most symptoms go away quickly.

What do the results mean?

Your test results may be reported in different ways. It may give you a total vitamin D result, or it may include separate results for vitamin D2 and vitamin D3. These two types of vitamin D work about the same in your body. Your total vitamin D level is the sum of these two types. The total vitamin D number is the important number.

If your total vitamin D level shows a vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency, it may mean you:

  • Don't get enough vitamin D from your diet and/or exposure to sunlight
  • Have trouble absorbing vitamin D in your food, which may be a sign of a malabsorption disorder
  • Have trouble changing vitamin D into a form your body can use, which may be a sign of kidney or liver disease

The treatment for low vitamin D levels is usually supplements and/or dietary changes. This is usually safer than getting more sun, which may cause skin cancer.

If your total vitamin D level shows you have too much vitamin D, it is most likely from getting too much from supplements. This is very uncommon, but if it happens, you'll need to stop taking these supplements to reduce your vitamin D levels. Too much vitamin D can cause serious damage to your organs and blood vessels. If you take vitamin D supplements, ask your provider what dose is right for you.

To learn what your vitamin D test results mean, talk with your provider.

Learn more about laboratory tests, reference ranges, and understanding results.

Is there anything else I need to know about a vitamin D test?

Be sure to tell your provider about medicines, vitamins, or supplements you are taking, because they can affect your test results.

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Vitamin B12 with Folate $30.00

What is a vitamin B test?

This test measures the amount of one or more B vitamins in your blood or urine. B vitamins are nutrients the body needs so that it can perform a variety of essential functions. These include:

  • Maintaining normal metabolism (the process of how your body uses food and energy)
  • Making healthy blood cells
  • Helping the nervous system work properly
  • Reducing risk of heart disease
  • Helping to lower bad cholesterol (LDL) and increase good cholesterol (HDL)

There are several types of B vitamins. These vitamins, also known as the B vitamin complex, include the following:

  • B1, thiamine
  • B2, riboflavin
  • B3, niacin
  • B5, pantothenic acid
  • B6, pyridoxal phosphate
  • B7, biotin
  • B9, folic acid (or folate) and B12, cobalamin. These two B vitamins are often measured together in a test called vitamin B12 and folate.

Vitamin B deficiencies are rare in the United States, because many everyday foods are fortified with B vitamins. These foods include cereals, breads, and pasta. Also, B vitamins are found naturally in a variety of foods, including leafy green vegetables and whole grains. But if you do have a deficiency in any of the B vitamins, it can cause serious health problems.

Other names: vitamin B testing, vitamin B complex, thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxal phosphate (B6), biotin (B7), vitamin B12 and folate

What is it used for?

Vitamin B testing is used to find out if your body is not getting enough of one or more B vitamins (vitamin B deficiency). A vitamin B12 and folate test is often used to check for certain types of anemia.

Why do I need a vitamin B test?

You may need this test if you have symptoms of a vitamin B deficiency. Symptoms vary depending on which B vitamin is deficient, but some common symptoms include:

  • Rash
  • Tingling or burning in the hands and feet
  • Cracked lips or mouth sores
  • Weight loss
  • Weakness
  • Fatigue
  • Mood changes

You may also need testing if you have certain risk factors. You may be at a higher risk for a vitamin B deficiency if you have:

  • Celiac disease
  • Had gastric bypass surgery
  • A family history of anemia
  • Symptoms of anemia, which include fatigue, pale skin, and dizziness

What happens during a vitamin B test?

Vitamin B levels may be checked in blood or urine.

During a blood test, a health care professional will take a blood sample from a vein in your arm, using a small needle. After the needle is inserted, a small amount of blood will be collected into a test tube or vial. You may feel a little sting when the needle goes in or out. This usually takes less than five minutes.

Vitamin B urine testing may be ordered as a 24-hour urine sample test or a random urine test.

For a 24-hour urine sample test, you'll need to collect all urine passed in a 24-hour period. This is called a 24-hour urine sample test. Your health care provider or a laboratory professional will give a container to collect your urine and instructions on how to collect and store your samples. A 24-hour urine sample test generally includes the following steps:

  • Empty your bladder in the morning and flush that urine away. Record the time.
  • For the next 24 hours, save all your urine passed in the container provided.
  • Store your urine container in the refrigerator or a cooler with ice.
  • Return the sample container to your health provider's office or the laboratory as instructed.

For a random urine test, your sample of urine may be collected any time of the day.

Will I need to do anything to prepare for the test?

If you are having a vitamin B blood test, you may need to fast (not eat or drink) for several hours before the test.

You don't need any special preparations for a urine test.

Are there any risks to the test?

There is very little risk to having a blood test. You may experience slight pain or bruising at the spot where the needle was put in, but most symptoms go away quickly.

There is no known risk to having a urine test.

What do the results mean?

If your results show you have a vitamin B deficiency, it can mean you have:

  • Malnutrition, a condition that happens when you don't get enough nutrients in your diet.
  • malabsorprtion syndrome, a type of disorder where your small intestine can't absorb enough nutrients from food. Malabsorption syndromes include celiac disease and Crohn's disease.

Vitamin B12 deficiencies are most often caused by pernicious anemia, a condition in which the body does not make enough healthy red blood cells.

If you have questions about your results, talk to your health care provider.

Learn more about laboratory tests, reference ranges, and understanding results.

Is there anything else I need to know about vitamin B testing?

Vitamin B6, folic acid (vitamin B9), and vitamin B12 play a key role in maintaining a healthy pregnancy. While pregnant women are not routinely tested for vitamin B deficiencies, nearly all pregnant women are encouraged to take prenatal vitamins, which include B vitamins. Folic acid, in particular, can help prevent birth defects of the brain and spine when taken during pregnancy.

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PSA $20.00

Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Test

What is a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test?

A prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is a blood test that measures the level of PSA in a sample of your blood. PSA is a protein made by your prostate. The prostate is a gland in the male reproductive system. It lies just below the bladder. It makes the fluid part of semen.

It's normal to have a low level of PSA in your blood. A high PSA level may be caused by:

A PSA test can't show what is causing abnormal PSA levels. So, if your level is high, you may need other tests.

Other names: total PSA free PSA

What is it used for?

A PSA test is used to screen for prostate cancer. Cancer screening means looking for signs of cancer before it causes symptoms. But screening tests can't diagnose cancer. If a screening test finds signs of cancer, you'll need other tests to find out if you have cancer and how serious it may be.

Most types of prostate cancer grow very slowly. They don't spread beyond the prostate and may never cause health problems. In fact, you can live a long life with prostate cancer and never know you have it. The goal of prostate cancer screening is to help find cancers that may be more likely to spread so they can be treated early. But there are challenges and possible harms from using a PSA test to screen for prostate cancer:

  • A PSA test can't tell the different between abnormal PSA levels from prostate cancer and noncancerous conditions. If your PSA level is high, a prostate biopsy is the only way to find out if the cause is cancer. And prostate biopsies have possible harms.
  • A PSA test may lead to finding and treating prostate cancer that would never have affected your health. If prostate cancer is found:

To decide whether a PSA test to screen for prostate cancer is right for you, talk with your health care provider about:

  • Your risk for developing a serious type of prostate cancer. If your risk is high, the possible benefits of finding cancer early may outweigh the possible harms.
  • Your general health. Are you well enough to have treatment for prostate cancer if it's found?
  • Your preferences. How do you feel about the possible benefits and harms of screening, diagnosis, and treatment?

PSA testing may also be used to:

  • Help diagnose the cause of prostate conditions that aren't cancer
  • Monitor treatment for a prostate condition, including cancer

Why do I need a PSA test?

It's your choice whether to have a PSA test to screen for cancer. You and your prover may consider your risk for developing a serious cancer that could spread if you don't catch it early. Your risk for serious prostate cancer may be higher depending on your:

  • Age. The risk of prostate cancer increases after age 50.
  • Your family health history. If members of your family have had prostate cancer, your risk may be higher.
  • Your race. Prostate cancer is more common in African Americans. They also have a higher risk of developing prostate cancer at a younger age and having more serious disease.

You may also have a PSA test if:

  • You have symptoms of a prostate condition, such as:
    • Painful or frequent urination (peeing)
    • Blood in urine or semen
    • Pelvic and/or back pain
  • You have prostate cancer. Your provider may use PSA testing to monitor your condition or to see how well treatment is working.

What happens during a PSA test?

A health care professional will take a blood sample from a vein in your arm, using a small needle. After the needle is inserted, a small amount of blood will be collected into a test tube or vial. You may feel a little sting when the needle goes in or out. This usually takes less than five minutes.

Will I need to do anything to prepare for the test?

You will need to avoid having sex or masturbating for 24 hours before your PSA test. That's because releasing semen can increase your PSA levels, which may make your results less accurate. Also, certain medicines may affect your test results, so tell your provider about any medicines you take.

Are there any risks to the test?

There is very little risk to having a blood test. You may have slight pain or bruising at the spot where the needle was put in, but most symptoms go away quickly.

What do the results mean?

There is no specific normal or abnormal level for PSA in blood. In general, the higher your PSA level, the more likely it is that you have cancer. But it's possible to have a high PSA without prostate cancer, or a low PSA with prostate cancer.

If you had a PSA test for a prostate cancer screening or because you have prostate symptoms:

  • High PSA levels can mean you have prostate cancer or a prostate condition that's not cancer, such as an infection (prostatitis) or an enlarged prostate. If your PSA levels are higher than normal, your provider may talk with you about having more tests to diagnose the cause. These tests may include:
    • Another PSA test, more commonly if you don't have any symptoms. PSA levels can go up and down, so it helpful to see if your PSA levels change over time.
    • A digital rectal exam (DRE). For this test, your provider inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into your rectum to feel your prostate for lumps or anything unusual.
    • urine test. A sample of your urine is tested for infection.
    • A prostate biopsy. A biopsy is minor surgery. A doctor removes samples of tissue from your prostate so it can be studied under a microscope to look for cancer cells. A biopsy is the only way to diagnose cancer. It may be recommended if your provider thinks you may have prostate cancer.

If you had a PSA test to monitor prostate cancer or treatment, ask your provider what a high PSA level means. Your provider will usually look at several tests results over time to get a fuller understanding of your condition.

If you have questions about your results, talk with your provider.

Source: 

Prothrombin Time with INR $20.00

What is a prothrombin time (PT) test?

A prothrombin time (PT) test uses blood samples to measure how quickly your blood forms a clot. If you’re injured and bleeding, your body launches a step-by-step process that creates clots that stop the bleeding. That process involves proteins, called clotting factors or coagulation factors. Prothrombin is one of several clotting factors that combine forces to create blood clots. But the clotting process doesn’t work if there’s not enough of each clotting factor and not all factors function as they should. A high PT level means it takes more time than usual for your body to form clots.

Why would I need a PT test?

Healthcare providers often do this test to monitor your prothrombin levels if you’re taking the blood thinner warfarin (Coumadin®). Warfarin helps prevent blood clots, which can cause serious conditions such as deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism.

I don’t take warfarin. Why do I need this test?

There are several reasons why your healthcare provider may do a prothrombin time test:

  • You’re having surgery and your healthcare provider wants to confirm your blood clotting process functions as it should. A prothrombin time test is one way to do that.
  • You’re developing bruises, having heavy nosebleeds or cuts that don’t stop bleeding. A PT test can uncover the cause so your healthcare provider can treat the problem.
  • You have symptoms of bleeding disorders. A prothrombin time test is a first step toward identifying potential problems.

Did my healthcare provider order a PT test because I may have a serious condition?

If you’re taking a prothrombin time test, it’s because your healthcare provider is gathering information so they can assess your situation. A PT test is an early step in that process. It’s understandable if you have questions. Ask your healthcare provider to explain the test process and objective. They’ll be glad to explain what this test may show and how that information may be helpful.

What’s the difference between a prothrombin time test and a partial thromboplastin time (PPT) test?

Healthcare providers use PT tests to check prothrombin levels, one of the coagulation factors that help form blood clots. A partial thromboplastin time test checks your plasma for coagulation factor abnormalities.

TEST DETAILS

Do I need to do anything to prepare for a prothrombin time test?

Some medications, supplements, food and alcohol may affect test results. Tell your healthcare provider if you’re taking certain medications or supplements. Ask your healthcare provider what you should avoid before your test. Examples of medications that may affect PT test results include:

  • Some antibiotics.
  • Barbiturates.
  • Oral contraceptives.
  • Hormone replacement therapy.
  • Aspirin.
  • Heparin.
  • Antihistamines.

What vitamin supplements can affect test results?

If you’re taking warfarin, vitamin C and K supplements may affect your test results.

What foods can affect results?

Foods that contain large amounts of vitamin K can affect results, including:

  • Beef and pork liver.
  • Green tea.
  • Chickpeas.
  • Kale.
  • Turnip greens.
  • Soybean products.
  • Asparagus.
  • Broccoli.

What does a PT test involve?

A prothrombin time test is a simple procedure. To do this test, your healthcare provider will swab your skin with alcohol. Then, they’ll place an elastic band around your upper arm and ask you to make a fist. Making a fist helps your blood flow more easily. You may feel a sting or prick when your healthcare provider inserts the needle. After your healthcare provider has finished drawing blood, they’ll put a small bandage on spot where they inserted the needle.

RESULTS AND FOLLOW-UP

How soon will I receive my test results?

Typically, people receive their test results within a few hours to one day. Your healthcare provider will explain what the results mean and whether you’ll need additional tests.

Why do I have two sets of results?

Most laboratories report your PT test results as the international normalized ratio, or INR. Your INR result is a calculated measurement that adjusts for differences in laboratory testing processes.

What is a normal PT/INR range?

Your test result will show different ranges for PT and INRs The normal ranges for clotting are:

  • 11 to 13.5 seconds
  • INR of 0.8 to 1.1
  • INR of 2.0 to 3.0 is a general therapeutic range for people taking warfarin.

What happens if my PT INR is high?

If your INR is above 1.1, your blood is clotting more slowly than normal. Depending on your situation, your healthcare provider may order additional tests so they can diagnose and treat the problem.

Why would someone taking warfarin have high PT INR results?

Several things can affect prothrombin time test results for people taking warfarin. You may have high PT/IR results if:

  • You haven’t been taking the proper dose of warfarin.
  • You’ve taken over-the-counter medicines, such cold medicines, or vitamin supplements, that can interact with warfarin.
  • You’ve consumed food and drinks that can interact with warfarin, such as kale, spinach, cranberry juice and alcohol.

 

If you’re injured and bleeding, your body races to form blood clots to stop the bleeding so you can begin to heal. When that doesn’t happen, healthcare providers use a prothrombin time (PT) test to find out why. You may have regular PT tests because you’re taking the blood thinner warfarin (Coumadin). Some people have PT tests as a first step toward diagnosing conditions, including blood disorders. Your PT test results will show if your prothrombin levels are normal or too high. You may have questions about what’s next. Your healthcare provider will have answers.

Source:

Hemoglobin A1C $25.00

What is a hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) test?

A hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C) test is a blood test that shows what your average blood sugar (glucose) level was over the past two to three months.

Glucose is a type of sugar in your blood that comes from the foods you eat. Your cells use glucose for energy. A hormone called insulin helps glucose get into your cells. If you have diabetes your body doesn't make enough insulin, or your cells don't use it well. As a result, glucose can't get into your cells, so your blood sugar levels increase.

Glucose in your blood sticks to hemoglobin, a protein in your red blood cells. As your blood glucose levels increase, more of your hemoglobin will be coated with glucose. An A1C test measures the percentage of your red blood cells that have glucose-coated hemoglobin.

An A1C test can show your average glucose level for the past three months because:

  • Glucose sticks to hemoglobin for as long as the red blood cells are alive.
  • Red blood cells live about three months.

High A1C levels are a sign of high blood glucose from diabetes. Diabetes can cause serious health problems, including heart diseasekidney disease, and nerve damage. But with treatment and lifestyle changes, you can control your blood glucose levels.

Other names: HbA1C, A1C, glycohemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin

What is it used for?

An A1C test may be used to screen for or diagnose:

  • Type 2 diabetes. With type 2 diabetes your blood glucose gets too high because your body doesn't make enough insulin to move blood sugar from your bloodstream into your cells, or because your cells stop responding to insulin.
  • Prediabetes. Prediabetes means that your blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to diagnosed as diabetes. Lifestyle changes, such as healthy eating and exercise, may help delay or prevent prediabetes from becoming type 2 diabetes.

If you have diabetes or prediabetes, an A1C test can help monitor your condition and check how well you've been able to control your blood sugar levels.

Why do I need an HbA1C test?

The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommends A1C testing for diabetes and prediabetes if:

  • You are over age 45.
    • If your results are normal, you should repeat the test every 3 years.
    • If your results show you have prediabetes, you will usually need to be tested every 1 to 2 years. Ask your provider how often to get tested and what you can do to reduce your risk of developing diabetes.
    • If your results show you have diabetes, you should get an A1C test at least twice a year to monitor your condition and treatment.
  • You are under 45 and are more likely to develop diabetes because you:

You may also need an A1C test if you have symptoms of diabetes, such as:

  • Feeling very thirsty
  • Urinating (peeing) a lot
  • Losing weight without trying
  • Feeling very hungry
  • Blurred vision
  • Numb or tingling hands or feet
  • Fatigue
  • Dry skin
  • Sores that heal slowly
  • Having more infections than usual

What happens during an A1C test?

A health care professional will take a blood sample from a vein in your arm, using a small needle. After the needle is inserted, a small amount of blood will be collected into a test tube or vial. You may feel a little sting when the needle goes in or out. This usually takes less than five minutes.

Will I need to do anything to prepare for the test?

You don't need any special preparations for an A1C test.

Are there any risks to the test?

There is very little risk to having a blood test. You may have slight pain or bruising at the spot where the needle was put in, but most symptoms go away quickly.

What do the results mean?

A1C results tell you what percentage of your hemoglobin is coated with glucose. The percent ranges are just a guide to what is normal. What's normal for you depends on your health, age, and other factors. Ask your provider what A1C percentage is healthy for you.

To diagnose diabetes or prediabetes, the percentages commonly used are:

  • Normal: A1C below 5.7%
  • Prediabetes: A1C between 5.7% and 6.4%
  • Diabetes: A1C of 6.5% or higher

Providers often use more than one test to diagnose diabetes. So, if your test result was higher than normal, you may have another A1C test or a different type of diabetes test, usually either a fasting blood glucose test or an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).

If your A1C test was done to monitor your diabetes, talk with your provider about what your test results mean.

Learn more about laboratory tests, reference ranges, and understanding results.

Is there anything else I need to know about an HbA1C test?

The A1C test is not used to diagnose gestational diabetes or type 1 diabetes.

Also, if you have a condition that affects your red blood cells, such as anemia or another type of blood disorder, an A1C test may not be accurate for diagnosing diabetes. Kidney failure and liver disease can also affect A1C results. In these cases, your provider may recommend different tests to diagnose diabetes and prediabetes.

Source:

Qualitative Serum HCG $15.00

A qualitative HCG blood test checks if there is a hormone called human chorionic gonadotropin in your blood. HCG is a hormone produced in the body during pregnancy.

Other HCG tests include:

How the Test is Performed

A blood sample is needed. This is most often taken from a vein. The procedure is called a venipuncture.

 

How to Prepare for the Test

No special preparation is needed.

How the Test will Feel

When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing.

Why the Test is Performed

Most often, this test is performed to determine if you are pregnant. HCG level in the blood may also be high in women with certain types of ovarian tumors or in men with testicular tumors.

Normal Results

The test result will be reported as negative or positive.

  • The test is negative if you are not pregnant.
  • The test is positive if you are pregnant.

What Abnormal Results Mean

If your blood HCG is positive and you DO NOT have a pregnancy properly implanted in the uterus, it may indicate:

Risks

Risks of having blood drawn are slight, but may include:

  • Excessive bleeding
  • Fainting or feeling lightheaded
  • Blood accumulating under the skin (hematoma)
  • Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken)

Considerations

False positive tests may occur when certain hormones are increased, such as after menopause or when taking hormone supplements.

A pregnancy test is considered to be very accurate. When the test is negative but pregnancy is still suspected, the test should be repeated in 1 week.

Alternative Names

Beta-HCG in blood serum - qualitative; Human chorionic gonadotrophin - serum - qualitative; Pregnancy test - blood - qualitative; Serum HCG - qualitative; HCG in blood serum - qualitative

Source

Uric Acid $15.00
Your body is in constant motion, 24-7. Even as you sleep, your blood flows, your brain fires away, and your gut digests that late-night snack. Whenever you eat something, your body pulls out the good stuff, such as proteins and vitamins, and sends away the waste.

Typically, one of those waste products is uric acid. It’s formed when your body breaks down purines, which are found in some foods. Most of the uric acid leaves your body when you pee, and some when you poop.

A uric acid test is not done as a routine blood test. But, if you have a a health problem that can cause or be caused by high uric acid  levels, it can be useful to measure it. High levels of uric acid can cause gout and you'll need to try and lower it.  If you have symptoms of gout, you need to test a uric acid blood test, which measures how much uric acid you have in your blood.

You may also hear this test called a serum uric acid test, serum urate, or UA.

Your doctor can use this test to help find out if you have:

Gout: This is a form of arthritis where crystals from uric acid form in your joints and cause intense pain. You often feel it in your big toe, but can get it in your anklesfeet, hands, knees, and wrists, as well. It can also cause swelling, redness, and discomfort in those joints, and may limit your range of motion.

Kidney stones: These are little, hard masses -- like small stones -- that form in your kidneys when you have too much uric acid. They may cause severe pain in your lower back that comes and goes, blood in your urine, throwing up, upset stomach, and an urgent need to pee.

High uric acid level during chemo or radiation: These treatments kill a lot of cells in your body, which can raise the level of uric acid. The test is used to check that your level doesn’t get too high.

Typically, you don’t need to do anything special. In some cases, your doctor may tell you not to eat or drink anything for 4 or more hours before the test. Your doctor will also let you know if you need to stop taking any medicines.

Make sure to tell your doctor about any medicines, herbs, and supplements you take, including over-the-counter, prescription, and illegal drugs. Any of these, including medications that make you pee more often (diuretics), vitamin B-3, and aspirin, can affect your results.

This test is a basic blood draw and takes just a few minutes.

Typically, you’ll feel a prick when the needle goes in. That’s usually the worst of it, but since you’re having your blood drawn, there’s a very slight chance of problems such as:

  • Bleeding or bruising
  • Feeling dizzy or lightheaded
  • Infection

The test tells you how much uric acid is in your blood.

It measures the uric acid in milligrams (mg) and the blood in deciliters (dL), so you’ll see a number with units of mg/dL.

What’s a normal range varies with different labs, so check with your doctor to help you understand your result. You usually get results in 1 to 2 days, but it depends on your lab.

Generally, your uric acid level is high when:

  • For females, it’s over 6 mg/dL
  • For males, it’s over 7 mg/dL

High levels could be a sign of many conditions, including goutkidney disease, and cancer. But it could be higher than normal because you eat foods with a lot of purines. That includes dried beans or certain fish such as anchovies, mackerel, and sardines.

Usually, your doctor will order other tests at the same time to track down what’s causing your symptoms. Your doctor will then help you understand what all your results mean and what your next steps are.

Source: WebMD

Blood Type ABO/RH $20.00

Blood typing

Blood typing is a method to tell what type of blood you have. Blood typing is done so you can safely donate your blood or receive a blood transfusion. It is also done to see if you have a substance called Rh factor on the surface of your red blood cells.

Your blood type is based on whether or not certain proteins are on your red blood cells. These proteins are called antigens. Your blood type (or blood group) depends on what types your parents passed down to you.

Blood is often grouped according to the ABO blood typing system. The 4 major blood types are:

  • Type A
  • Type B
  • Type AB
  • Type O

How the Test is Performed

blood sample is needed. The test to determine your blood group is called ABO typing. Your blood sample is mixed with antibodies against type A and B blood. Then, the sample is checked to see whether or not the blood cells stick together. If blood cells stick together, it means the blood reacted with one of the antibodies.

The second step is called back typing. The liquid part of your blood without cells (serum) is mixed with blood that is known to be type A and type B. People with type A blood have anti-B antibodies. People with type B blood have anti-A antibodies. Type O blood contains both types of antibodies.

The 2 steps above can accurately determine your blood type.

Rh typing uses a method similar to ABO typing. When blood typing is done to see if you have Rh factor on the surface of your red blood cells, the results will be one of these:

  • Rh+ (positive), if you have this cell surface protein
  • Rh- (negative), if you do not have this cell surface protein
 

How to Prepare for the Test

No special preparation is necessary for this test.

How the Test will Feel

When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or slight bruising. This soon goes away.

Why the Test is Performed

Blood typing is done so you can safely receive a blood transfusion or a transplant. Your blood type must closely match the blood type of the blood you are receiving. If the blood types do not match:

  • Your immune system will see the donated red blood cells as foreign.
  • Antibodies will develop against the donated red blood cells and attack these blood cells.

The two ways that your blood and the donated blood may not match are:

  • A mismatch between blood types A, B, AB, and O. This is the most common form of a mismatch. In most cases, the immune response is very severe.
  • Rh factor may not match.

Blood typing is very important during pregnancy. Careful testing can prevent a severe anemia in the newborn and jaundice.

Normal Results

You will be told which ABO blood type you have. It will be one of these:

  • Type A blood
  • Type B blood
  • Type AB blood
  • Type O blood

You will also be told whether you have Rh-positive blood or Rh-negative blood.

Based on your results, your health care providers can determine which type of blood you can safely receive:

  • If you have type A blood, you can only receive types A and O blood.
  • If you have type B blood, you can only receive types B and O blood.
  • If you have type AB blood, you can receive types A, B, AB, and O blood.
  • If you have type O blood, you can only receive type O blood.
  • If you are Rh+, you can receive Rh+ or Rh- blood.
  • If you are Rh-, you can only receive Rh- blood.

Type O blood can be given to anyone with any blood type. That is why people with type O blood are called universal blood donors.

Risks

There is little risk involved with having your blood taken. Veins and arteries vary in size from one person to another, and from one side of the body to the other. Taking blood from some people may be more difficult than from others.

Other risks associated with having blood drawn are slight, but may include:

  • Fainting or feeling lightheaded
  • Multiple punctures to locate veins
  • Excessive bleeding
  • Hematoma (blood buildup under the skin)
  • Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken)

Considerations

There are many antigens besides the major ones (A, B, and Rh). Many minor ones are not routinely detected during blood typing. If they are not detected, you may still have a reaction when receiving certain types of blood, even if the A, B, and Rh antigens are matched.

A process called cross-matching followed by a Coombs test can help detect these minor antigens. It is done before transfusions, except in emergency situations.

Source

Covid-19 PCR $50.00

What is a PCR test?

PCR means polymerase chain reaction. It’s a test to detect genetic material from a specific organism, such as a virus. The test detects the presence of a virus if you have the virus at the time of the test. The test could also detect fragments of the virus even after you are no longer infected.

What is a COVID-19 PCR test?

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for COVID-19 is a molecular test that analyzes your upper respiratory specimen, looking for genetic material (ribonucleic acid or RNA) of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Scientists use the PCR technology to amplify small amounts of RNA from specimens into deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), which is replicated until SARS-CoV-2 is detectable if present. The PCR test has been the gold standard test for diagnosing COVID-19 since authorized for use in February 2020. It’s accurate and reliable.

Who should get tested for COVID-19?

Your healthcare provider may recommend testing for COVID-19 if you have any of the following symptoms:

  • Fever or chills.
  • Cough.
  • Shortness of breath or difficulty breathing.
  • Fatigue.
  • Muscle or body aches.
  • Headache.
  • New loss of taste or smell.
  • Sore throat.
  • Congestion or runny nose.
  • Nausea or vomiting.
  • Diarrhea.

Not everyone with COVID-19 develops symptoms. And not all symptomatic people develop all of the symptoms listed above. Please check with your healthcare provider if you’re feeling unwell during the COVID-19 pandemic — even if you’ve been vaccinated.

TEST DETAILS

There are three key steps to the COVID-19 PCR test:

  1. Sample collection: A healthcare provider uses a swab to collect respiratory material found in your nose. A swab is a soft tip on a long, flexible stick that goes into your nose. There are different types of nose swabs, including nasal swabs that collect a sample immediately inside your nostrils and nasopharyngeal swabs that go further into the nasal cavity for collection. Either type of swab is sufficient for collecting material for the COVID-19 PCR test. After collection, the swab is sealed in a tube and then sent to a laboratory.
  2. Extraction: When a laboratory scientist receives the sample, they isolate (extract) genetic material from the rest of the material in the sample.
  3. PCR: The PCR step then uses special chemicals and enzymes and a PCR machine called a thermal cycler. Each heating and cooling cycle increases (amplifies) the amount of the targeted genetic material in the test tube. After many cycles, millions of copies of a small portion of the SARS-CoV-2 virus’s genetic material are present in the test tube. One of the chemicals in the tube produces a fluorescent light if SARS-CoV-2 is present in the sample. Once amplified enough, the PCR machine can detect this signal. Scientists use special software to interpret the signal as a positive test result.

RESULTS AND FOLLOW-UP

What do COVID-19 PCR test results mean?

positive test result means that it's likely that you have an infection with SARS-CoV-2. This could be due to asymptomatic infection, but if you have symptoms, then this infection is called COVID-19. Most people have mild illness and can recover safely at home without medical care. Contact your healthcare provider if your symptoms get worse or if you have questions or concerns.

negative test result means you probably didn't have an infection with SARS-CoV-2 at the time your specimen was collected. However, it's possible to have COVID-19 but not have the virus detected by the test. For example, this may happen if you recently became infected but you don’t have symptoms yet — or it could happen if you've had COVID-19 for more than a week before being tested. A negative test doesn’t mean you are safe for any length of time: You can be exposed to COVID-19 after your test, get infected and spread the SARS-Cov-2 virus to others.

If your test is positive, talk with your healthcare provider, stay home and separate yourself from others. If your test is negative, continue to take steps to protect yourself and others from getting COVID-19. Read more about what to do if you test positive and ways to prevent getting infected with COVID-19.

How long does it take to get coronavirus test results?

You should receive your test results as early as 24 hours after sample collection, but sometimes it can take a few days, depending on how long it takes the sample to reach the laboratory.

How long do you test positive after having had COVID-19?

Because the PCR test is so sensitive, it can detect very small amounts of virus material. This means that the test can continue to detect fragments of SARS-CoV-2 virus even after you’ve recovered from COVID-19 and are no longer contagious. So you may continue to test positive if you've had COVID-19 in the distant past, even though you can’t spread the SARS-CoV-2 virus to others.

Prolonged infection in immunocompromised individuals can occur where they shed infectious virus for months. Also, healthy people can become reinfected. If you test positive for SARS-CoV-2 but you think you might have already recovered from COVID-19, please discuss with a healthcare provider.

ADDITIONAL DETAILS

What's the difference between the PCR and antigen tests for COVID-19?

There are two types of tests for COVID-19: the PCR test and the antigen test.

  • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This tests for the presence of the actual virus’s genetic material or its fragments as it breaks down. PCR is the most reliable and accurate test for detecting active infection. PCR tests typically take hours to perform, but some are faster.
  • Antigen test: This detects bits of proteins on the surface of the virus called antigens. Antigen tests typically take only 15 to 30 minutes. Rapid antigen tests are most accurate when used within a few days of the start of your symptoms, which is when the largest amount of virus is present in your body.

Which COVID test is more accurate?

The antigen test is typically faster but is less sensitive than the PCR test. Because the antigen test is not as accurate as PCR, if an antigen test is negative, your healthcare provider could request a PCR test to confirm the negative antigen test result.

How do I find out where to get tested for COVID-19?

If you have symptoms of COVID-19 or were exposed to people who have symptoms or have tested positive, you may want a test. First, talk with your healthcare provider. They will review your symptoms in person or on a video appointment. If needed, the provider orders a test and helps you find a testing location and time. Keep in mind that if you’ve been exposed to the SARS-CoV-2 virus but don’t have symptoms, call the testing site first to make sure they can accommodate you.

You can also call or check the websites of your local hospitals in your health insurance network or check with community health centers or urgent care centers. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services provides links to find community-based testing sites in your state. You can also check your state or local health department websites for the latest information on testing locations. The Centers for Disease Control provides links to these state and local health departments.

 

Accurate and quick tests are key to slowing the spread of COVID-19. If you develop symptoms, please call your healthcare provider or your local public health department to determine where to go for testing. Trust your healthcare provider to recommend the quickest, most accurate test available. To keep those around you safe, you should wear a face mask that fits snugly over your nose, mouth and chin, and avoid close contact with others until you get the results of your COVID test. Be sure to monitor your symptoms and seek emergency care if you have:

  • Trouble breathing.
  • Persistent pain or pressure in your chest.
  • New confusion.
  • Aren’t able to wake or stay awake.
  • Blue lips or face.

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